November in Native American History
by Phil Konstantin Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2013)
1735: According to some sources, an agreement covering “amity and commerce” is reached by representatives of the British in New York, and Western Abenaki, Housatonic, Mohegan and Scaghticoke Indians.
1739: Several Shawnee Chiefs sign a peace treaty with British Pennsylvania authorities not to become allies with any other country. The British agree to enforce previous treaties banning the sale of rum to the Indians.
1634: Tensions in Massachusetts have been raised because Niantic Indians have killed a boat captain named John Stone. Rather than having a war, the Niantics, and their allies the Pequots, conclude a peace treaty with the Massachusetts government. Some sources say this treaty is signed on November 7, 1634.
1770: Spanish and Opata Indians forces, led by Bernardo de Gálvez, are on a punitive expedition directed toward the Apache. A former Apache captive is leading them to the village where he was held near the Pecos River in modern Texas. They reach the site of the village only to discover that the Apache have gone. They continue their search during the night.
1869: Metis force take over Fort Garry, Canada. This is another step in the rapidly increasing move toward rebellion.
1972: 500 Indians conclude the “Trail of Broken Treaties” march to Washington, D.C.. They seize part of the Bureau of Indian Affairs building until the 8th.
1689: A small force of thirty men, led by Lieutenant James Weems, are occupying the fort at Pemaquid, Maine. They are attacked by almost 100 Abenaki Indians. The soldiers eventually surrender, and those who aren’t killed, are taken as prisoners to Canada.
1792: Mohegan Samson Occom dies in New Stockbridge, New York. A protégé of Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, Occom learns numerous foreign languages, become an ordained minister, be the first Indian to preach in England, minister to many Indian tribes, and be instrumental in the establishment of Dartmouth College in New Hampshire.
1492: Columbus sails for the New World from Palos, Spain.
1761: According to some records, a conference regarding land questions and the return of prisoners is held for the next ten days between representatives of the British in Pennsylvania and the Cayuga, Conoy, Delaware, Mahican, Nanticoke, Oneida and Onondaga Indians.
1742: According to some reports, a meeting is held between representatives of the British in Massachusetts and the Maliseet, Norridgewock, Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, Pigwacket and St. Francis Indians regarding trade problems.
1813: 500 warriors of the White Stick faction of the Creeks gather in Coweta, across the river in Alabama from modern Columbus Georgia. With 200 Cherokee warriors, they make plans to attack a band of Red Stick Creeks, followers of Tecumseh, over 2,500 strong. The White Sticks are led by Tustunnuggee Thlucco and Tustunnuggee Hopoie.
1762: As a part of the Treaty of Fountainbleau, Spain acquires all of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River for helping France in the “Seven Years War,” also called the “French and Indian War.” Some sources report this happening on November 8th.
1833: Lieutenant Rains, Disbursing Agent for the Choctaws, informs General George Gibson that since the beginning of the fall, approximately 1/5 of the 3000 Choctaws near the Choctaw Agency in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), have died from the climate, the flood on the Arkansas River, and no scientific medical care.
1879: Will Rogers, American humorist and a Cherokee, is born. He is perhaps best known for his often repeated comment: “I’ve never met a man I didn’t like.”
695: Forces under Maya King Jasaw Chan K’awiil I (Sky Rain) defeat an army from Calakmul under Maya King Yich’aak K’ak’ (Fiery Claw).
1570: A Spanish colony expedition in sailing up the Chesapeake in Virginia, when they reach the area they will call Axaca somewhere near the Rappahannock. The local Indians will force the Spanish to abandon the effort.
1768: The Iroquois sell some land. According to many historians, the treaty signed at Fort Stanwix, near modern Rome, New York, causes such anguish among Indian tribes, it leads to Dunsmore’s War. The treaty is signed at a meeting of several thousand Indians.
1857: The Tonawanda Band of the Seneca sign a treaty (11 stat. 735).
1676: Weetamoo is the Sachem of the Wampanoag town of Pocasset, Rhode Island. The sister-in-law of King Philip, she leads as many as 300 warriors in battle. While trying to escape from European soldiers from Taunton, Massachusetts, she drowns in the Taunton River. Her head is cut off, and displayed on a pole in the town.
1840: Hundreds of Comanches, led by Buffalo Hump, surround, and attack Victoria, Texas. In the next two days, fifteen settlers are killed in the fighting. The Comanches take several hundred head of livestock.
1864: Colonel Kit Carson, and his troops, leave Fort Bascom, in western New Mexico, en route for the Texas panhandle to “punish” the “hostile” Comanches, and Kiowas, in the area.
1868: Four “Ogallalah Sioux,” including Red Cloud, two “Brule Sioux,” eighteen “Uncpapa Sioux,” ten “Blackfeet Sioux,” five “Cuthead Sioux,” three “Two Kettle Sioux,” four “Sans Arch Sioux,” and seven “Santee Sioux” sign the Fort Laramie treaty (15 stat. 635).
1670: Apache or Navajos attack the ancient Zuni Pueblo of Hawikuh. They burn the church, and kill the resident missionary.
1758: According to some reports, a peace conference is held for the next two days between representatives of the British in New Jersey and the Minisink Indians.
1519: According to some sources, Spaniards have their first view of Tenochtitlán (modern Mexico City).
1794: After over a year of raids by both the Americans and the Chickamaugas, the Chickamaugas have been beaten down. In a meeting arranged last month, Tennessee Governor William Blount meets with Cherokee and the offshoot Chickamauga Chiefs at the Tellico Blockhouse near the Tennessee and North Carolina border. Forty Chiefs are present, including John Watts (Young Tassel), Hanging Maw, and Bloody Fellow, and they agree to a peace. They also agree to exchange prisoners on December 31, 1794.
422: Maya King Casper is born, according to some sources. Eventually, he rules over Palenque, Mexico.
1699: The Tohome Indians live along the Gulf Coast in Alabama and Mississippi. In Biloxi, they formally establish peaceful relations with the French.
1762: As a part of the Treaty of Fountainbleau, Spain acquires all of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River for helping France in the “Seven Years War,” also called the “French and Indian War.” Some sources report this happening on November 3rd.
1978: The Area Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Vincent Little, ratifies a fourth amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Shoalwater Bay Indian Organization in Washington State.
1814: The Treaty of Fort Jackson (7 stat.120) officially ends the Creek War. The Creeks, including those who fought with Andrew Jackson, are forced to cede 22,000,000 acres, almost half their lands, to the United States. Timpoochee Barnard, one of the Yuchi Indian allies of the Americans, is one of the signatories to the treaty of Fort Jackson. Fort Jackson, formerly Fort Toulouse, is in modern Wetumpka, Alabama.
1823: In June Arikara warriors attack an American expedition. A force of 500 Sioux warriors finds the Arikaras and a battle takes place. Colonel Henry Leavenworth soon arrives with his force of 200 soldiers. He reports his men kill fifty Arikaras and the Siouxs kill fifteen. The Sioux lose two warriors.
1813: General Ferdinand Claiborne is leading a large force of Mississippi recruits to fight the Creeks. They enter Choctaw lands, where they are received warmly. Many Choctaws, led by Chief Pushmataha, join Claiborne.
1875: Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse are ordered to go to the reservation.
1680: The Pueblo Rebellion takes place in New Mexico under the leadership of a Tewa named Popé. Popé has arranged for an attack on as many of the Spanish missions as possible to all take place on the same day. Some sources say this happens on November 11th.
1861: Stand Watie’s Cherokee troops fight on the Confederate side at the Battle of Wilson’s Creek, in southern Missouri. The southerners are victorious. However, the participation of the Cherokees on the side of the south leads to further tensions among the Cherokees who wish to remain neutral. According to some sources, the first Cherokee to die in the Civil War falls during this battle.
1782: George Rogers Clark, and 1000 troops, attack the Miami Indians along the Licking River in Kentucky. This expedition has a very adverse psychological effect on the Miamis.
1813: William Weatherford’s (Lume Chathi – Red Eagle) ” Red Stick” Creeks are an anti-white faction of the Creek Indians. 1,000 of them have surrounded a pro-white group of Creeks at Talladega, in east-central Alabama. Andrew Jackson’s force of 2,000 Americans and allied Indians arrive at the scene of the siege and attack. Between the “friendly” Creeks, called “White Sticks”, and Jackson’s men, 410 of the 700 Red Stick Creeks are killed in the fighting. Jackson’s force lose only fifteen men.
3114 B.C.: According to some Maya sources, the present creation takes place. Other sources say this happens on November 12th or 13th. It will end on December 21, 23 or December 24, 2012.
1802: Tecumseh has predicted an earthquake. It happen and becomes known as the “New Madrid Earthquake.”
1794: A treaty (7 stat. 44) is concluded at Canandaigua (Konondaigua), New York, with the “Six Nations.” The United States acknowledges the treaties signed by the Six Nations and New York. Boundaries are established. The Six Nations will not submit further land claims. A wagon trail is established from Fort Schlosser to Buffalo Creek on Lake Erie. The Indians receive $10,000 in goods now. The annuity agreed to in the treaty of April 3, 1792 is increased from $1500 to $4500 in goods. The treaty is signed by Thomas Pickering for the United States, and by fifty-nine Indians.
1865: Medicine Bottle and Little Shakopee, two of the leaders of the Santee Sioux uprising are executed at Pine Knob. They both had escaped to Canada, but officials there aided Americans in their kidnapping, and return to the United States.
1769: Kumeyaay Indians fight with the Spaniards who have established the Mission San Diego de Alcala in what becomes San Diego, California.
1831: George Gaines, a white man the Choctaws trust, is appointed Special Agent to supervise the “collection and removal” of the Choctaws to the west bank of the Mississippi River. Here they are turned over to the army. The Choctaws want Gaines to handle the entire process. They feel he will not exploit them. George is the younger brother of General Edmund Gaines.
1764: Colonel Henry Bouquet calls upon the Shawnee, at his camp on the Muskingum River, to deliver all of their remaining prisoners. He asks the Shawnees to treat them gently.
1935: An election to establish constitution for the Tuolumne Band of Me-Wok Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria is authorized by the Secretary of the Interior.
1521: Montezuma’s nephew, and successor, Cuahtemoc surrenders to Cortés. His name is spelled Guatimozin in some sources.
1645: For several years, the Dutch, and the local Indian tribes near New Amsterdam and Pavonia, have been fighting. Hackensack Chief Oratamin negotiates a peace between the warring parties. It is another ten years before another major conflict erupted.
1747: According to some reports, a conference regarding alliances is held for the next four days between representatives of the British in Pennsylvania and the Miami, Shawnee and “Six Nations” tribes.
1833: Just before sunrise, there is a phenomenal meteor shower, which is seen all over North America. This event is recorded on Kiowa picture calendars as the most significant event of the year.
1559: Tristan de Luna y Arellano has been appointed to establish Spanish settlements on Pensacola Bay by the Spanish Viceroy in Mexico. His expedition of thirteen ships, several priests, 500 soldiers, and 1000 settlers arrive in Pensacola Bay, in Florida. Much of the expedition is killed or starves because of a hurricane which strikes the area a few days later.
1806: Lewis and Clark first reach a Minnetaree and Mandan village.
603: Maya King K’inich Yo’nal Ahk I (Ruler 1) ascends to the throne in Piedras Negras, Mexico.
1851: Lieutenant Colonel J.J. Abercrombie and members of the Fifth Infantry begin the construction of Fort Phantom Hill, north of Abilene, Texas. The fort is often visited by the local Comanches, Lipan-Apaches, Kiowas and Kickapoos.
1514: Spanish Bishop Bartoleme de las Casas releases the Indians he holds as serfs in Hispaniola.
1749: Maliseet chiefs ratify and agree to the treaty of December 15, 1725
1824: The Quapaw sign a treaty (7 stat. 23) and give up their claim to land between the Arkansas Post and Little Rock, extending inland to the Saline River. They agree to live in land promised to the Caddo Indians. The treaty is signed at Harrisons, in Arkansas territory.
1861: The Potawatomi sign a treaty. (12 stat.1191). The treaty sets aside some lands for common tribal usage and other lands are set aside for individual Indians.
1692: The Diego de Vargas campaign to reconquer New Mexico takes place.
1851: One in a series of treaties with California Indians is signed at Reading’s Ranch. The treaty is designed to reserve lands and to protect the Indians.
1811: According to some sources, Tecumseh predicts a “light across the sky” tonight. It is supposed to have appeared, as predicted.
1885: In Regina, Saskatchewan, Louis Riel (fil) is executed by hanging.
1755: Almost 400 Indians attack John Kilburn’s stockade at Walpole, Connecticut. Some sources say the Indians are led by King Philip. After a day of fighting, the Indians withdraw.
1765: Pontiac and the British sign a treaty.
1764: Part of Pontiac’s army surrenders at the Muskingham River.
1938: An election is authorized to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the Thlopthlocco Tribal Town of the Creek Indian Nation of the State of Oklahoma by Oscar Chapman, Assistant Secretary of the Interior. The election is held on December 27, 1938.
1804: Lewis and Clark meet with the Ottos to discuss the war with the Maha. 1854: Captain Jesse Walker attacks the Modocs on Tule Lake. Several minor engagements continue until the peace treaty is reached on November 4, 1854.
864: The Great Ballcourt at Chichen Itza is dedicated by the Maya.
1813: Members of the Hillabi Clan of the Muskogee Creeks have offered to surrender to General Andrew Jackson with Scots trader Robert Grierson acting as intermediary. Jackson agrees to the surrender. However, forces under Generals Hugh White and John Cocke are unaware of the agreement. They attack Hillabee village, which believes the fighting is over. Five dozen Hillabis are killed, and 250 are captured. This action reverses the Hillabis’ decision to surrender. They become one of the most fierce fighting units in the Creek War.
1607: English settlers officially found “the other” English colony on North America. Unlike Jamestown, Popham is settled by just men and boys. Popham, northeast of modern Portland, Maine, is established on the bluffs overlooking the spot where the Kennebec River flows into the ocean. The colony lasts only a little over one year. The colony’s second leader returns to England, taking the settlers with him, when he inherits a sizeable estate in England.
1854: A Miniconjou Sioux, named High Forehead, kills a sickly cow near Fort Laramie, in southeastern Wyoming. The cow’s owner complains to the fort’s commander. A brash Brevet Second Lieutenant John L. Grattan, and thirty volunteers leave the fort to find the Sioux involved. Grattan goes to Conquering Bear’s Brule Sioux camp near Ash Hollow, and demands the Indian who shot the cow. Grattan makes numerous threats to the Sioux, but they won’t hand over High Forehead. During the parlay, a shot rings out, and Grattan’s artillery gunners open fire on the camp. Conquering Bear tries to get both sides to stop shooting, but he is hit by an artillery round. Eventually, all but one of Grattan’s men are killed in the fighting.
1794: According to the Jay Treaty and Northwest Territory Treaty, Indians can cross borders.
1870: On the Wichita river in Texas, Private James Anderson, Company M, Sixth Cavalry, will “earn” a Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions in the pursuit and subsequent fight with a group of “hostile Indians,” according to army records.
1789: Juan de Ugalde is Commanding General of all Spanish forces in Coahuila, Nuevo León, Nuevo Santander, and Texas. He starts a major expedition against the Apache.
1789: An “Act Providing for the Expenses Which May Attend Negotiations or Treaties with the Indian Tribes, and the Appointment of Commissioners for Managing the Same” is approved by the United States.
1831: While looking for rumored “lost silver mines” in Texas near the old San Sabá Mission, Jim Bowie, and ten companions, encounter almost 150 Caddo and Waco Indians. A fight ensues which becomes legendary in Texas history. After frontal attacks prove ineffective, the Indians set fire to the brush and trees surrounding the Americans. This ploy also fails to work. After losing over fifty warriors, to Bowie’s one, the Indians leave the field.
1969: “Indians of all tribes” are declared on Alcatraz Island.
1689: Frenchmen convince local Indians to attack British Fort Charles in Maine. Several settlers are killed in the fighting.
1847: The Pillager Band of Chippewa sign a treaty (9 stat. 908) at Leech Lake.
1807: Spanish trader Manuel Lisa builds Fort Raymond at the confluence of the Yellowstone and Bighorn Rivers. This is in central Montana near modern Custer.
1836: A battle is fought on the Withlacoochee River in the Wahoo Swamp. American forces, with Indian allies, are led by General Richard Call. The Seminoles are led by Chiefs Osuchee and Yaholooche. After chasing the Seminoles across the river, the American forces call an end to their advance when they believe the river is too deep to cross in force. Creek David Moniac is killed in the battle of Wahoo Swamp, in central Florida, by Seminoles. Moniac graduated from West Point. Moniac is part of a force of almost 700 Creek warriors, and white soldiers.
1670: Hiacoomes preaches his first sermon to his Wampanoag people on Martha’s Vineyard.
1806: Pike’s expedition has reached a village of the Little Osage near the forks of the Osage River in modern Missouri. He holds a council here with both the Grand and Little Osage. The Little Osage are lead by Tuttassuggy or “The Wind,” and the Grand Osage by Cheveau Blanc, or White Hair.
1812: Potawatomi Chief Winamac is killed in fighting with Captain Logan (Spemicalawba). One of two Potawatomi Chiefs with the same name, he is a principle leader in the attacks on Forts Dearborn and Wayne in 1812. The other Winamac is pro-American.
1752: The “Mick Mack” of Nova Scotia sign a treaty with the British.
1732: Today marks the beginning of a peace conference held in Philadelphia with the local Indians. Attending the meeting are several Iroquois Chiefs, including Onondaga Chief Shikellamy.
1876: “Treaty 6 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Plain and Wood Cree Indians and Other Tribes of Indians at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt and Battle River with Adhesions” is signed in Canada.
1868: Custer and the Seventh Cavalry leave Camp Supply looking for “hostiles” in the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). There are 800 soldiers who start this march in a heavy snow storm.
1877: While authorities are attempting to arrest an Indian named Naught, who is accused of shooting two teamsters, other Indians become agitated. One of them shoots Alex Rhoden, who is walking across the street at the time, in Nalad City, Idaho. This incident leads to the Bannock War.
1818: The Quapaw Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 176) at St. Louis covering lands along the Arkansas and Red Rivers.
1835: The United States signs a treaty (7 Stat., 474.) with the Choctaw, Comanche, Creek (Muscogee), Cherokee, Osage, Quapaw, Seneca and Witchita at Camp Holmes “on the eastern border of the Grand Prairie, near the Canadian River.” Governor Montfort Stokes, Brigadier-General M. Arbuckle, represent the U. S. Many Indians sign the treaty.
1713: Father Junipero Serra is born. During his lifetime he establishes many of the missions in California.
1812: As a young boy, Spemicalawba (called Captain Logan or High Horn), is captured by General James Logan. General Logan raises him until he is returned to the Shawnee during a prisoner exchange. Tecumseh’s nephew, he tries to temper Tecumseh’s feelings toward the Europeans. Spemicalawba scouts for the Americans during the war of 1812. He is killed on this date during a scouting expedition. Buried with military honors, Logansport, Indiana is named after him.
1737: An agreement is signed by Thomas Penn and Munsee Chiefs Manawkyhickon and Nutimus. Teeshacomin and Lappawinzoe also sign. The agreement recognizes an old deed made in 1686. The agreement calls for Indian lands to be sold along the Delaware River for the distance that a man can walk in a day and a half. This is called the “Walking Purchase” and is performed on November 19, 1737.
1868: Acting Governor Hall of Colorado telegraphs to the military that 200 Indians are “devastating southern Colorado.” The military also receives a report of Indians killing an animal herder near Fort Dodge, in southwestern Kansas.
1712: The Commander in Chief of the Carolinas’ militia, Colonel Pollock meets with Chief Tom Blunt. The Chief did not participate in the original attacks of the Tuscarora War. They eventually sign a treaty not to attack each other. Blunt also agrees to bring in King Hancock.
1894: A group of nineteen Hopi “hostiles” are placed under arrest by the army for interfering with “friendly” Hopi Indian activities on their Arizona reservation. The nineteen prisoners will be held in Alcatraz prison in California from January 3, 1895 to August 7, 1895.
1842: The Caddoes sign a treaty in Texas. They agree to visit other tribes and try to convince them to also sign treaties with Texas.
1858: In what is called “The Battle of Four Lakes,” force under Colonel George Wright fight for about three hours with Coeur d’Alene, Columbia River, Colville, Kalispel, and Spokane Indians. The army defeats the Indians.
411: Maya King Siyaj Chan K’awill II (Stormy Sky) ascends the Tikal throne in Guatemala.
1835: Charley Emathla is killed. Emathla signs the agreement at Fort Gibson in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) committing the Seminoles to their removal from Florida. He is in favor of the removal. He is killed by Seminoles who are against the treaty or leaving Florida. Many believe that he is killed by Chief Osceola. This is the first in a series of killings.
1868: According to a report filed by Captain Henry C. Bankhead, commander Fort Wallace, in western Kansas, several citizens have been killed by Indians in the last few days near Sheridan (near modern Winona) and Lake Station, Colorado. Soldiers escorting a stagecoach near Cheyenne Wells were able to fight off an Indian attack. 250 Indians’ presence made Captain Edmond Butler, Fifth Infantry, and his wagon train, return to Big Springs. Acting Governor Hall, of Colorado, again telegraphs the President that Arapahos are killing settlers all over southern Colorado. In a separate report, Lieutenant F.H. Beecher, Third Infantry, reports two experienced scouts are shot in the back by Indians who have pretended to be friends. One survives by using the other’s dead body as a shield.
1878: Captain James Egan, and Troop K, Second Cavalry, are following a group of Bannocks, who have been stealing livestock along the Madison River. Near Henry’s Lake, Captain Egan’s forces skirmish with the Bannocks, and recover fifty-six head of livestock. The escaping Bannocks are starting to follow the trail taken by the Nez Perce, last year.
1759: Major Robert Rogers is en route to accept custody of French forts given over to the British after the end of the French-Indian War. When he comes upon the Detroit River at Lake St. Clair, he is confronted by a group of Indians. The leaders of the Indians, Pontiac, an Ottawa, tells Rogers he is trespassing, and asks his intentions. Rogers says he is going to remove the French, and he gives the Indians some gifts. Pontiac allows Rogers to pass unmolested.
1915: Private Albert Mountain Horse is buried in Fort Macleod, Alberta. He is the only Blood Indian to go to the front lines in World War One. He dies due to exposure to poison gas on the battlefield.
1565: Leading an expedition of 1,500 soldiers and colonists, Pedro Menendez de Aviles lands on the coast of Florida. His mission is to defeat the Protestants in the area, and to claim the land for Spain. Next month he establishes the town of St. Novemberine.
1833: Assiniboines attack Piegan Indians at Fort McKensie.
1729: The Natchez are very upset with the new commander at Fort Rosalie. Commander Etcheparre Chepart is incapable of command. The Natchez attack and destroy the fort, and begin a revolt in the area. Approximately 200 whites are killed in the attack on the fort, which begins today. This is called The Fourth War with the Natchez, by the French. Chepart is killed while hiding in his garden. Chepart has received a warning of the impending attack from Natchez Sun (Queen) Stung Arm; but, he refused to believe it.
1745: The old frontier settlement of Saratoga, New York is near modern Schuylerville. 220 Indians, and 400 French attack the settlement. Most of the town, and the fort, is burned, 100 settlers are captured, and another thirty are killed during the fighting.
1758: The First State Indian reservation, in Brotherton New Jersey, is established. It is primarily for the Lenni Lenape.
1978: The Area Director, Minneapolis Area Office, Bureau of Indian Affairs, has authorized an election for amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. The election will be held on December 15, 1978.
1691: The Abenaki sign a peace treaty with the British. Benjamin Church has been skirmishing with then since September in the vicinity of Saco, in southern Maine. The Abenaki agree to a six month truce, to release their English prisoners, and to keep the British aware of the movements of the French in the area.
1813: A battle is fought between Upper Town “Red Stick” Creeks, and the American forces in the village of Autossee, in modern Macon County, Alabama. A force of almost 1000 Georgia militia, and 400 pro-American Creeks (led by Efau Haujo), led by General John Floyd, attack the Red Stick Creek stronghold. A cannonade wins the day for the allies. The Red Stick Creeks suffer 200 fatalities, while the Americans post only eleven dead. The village and its supplies are burned. The villages of Tallassee and Little Tallassee are also destroyed. November 30th
1645: A peace treaty between the Dutch, led by Willem Kieft, and several local tribes is signed at Fort Orange, in modern Albany. This treaty concludes a protracted conflict in the area.
1690: A combined force of British, Yamassee and Yuchi Indians attack the Spanish mission of San Juan de Guacara in northern Florida. Many Timucua Indians in the area have been converted to Christianity or are loyal to the Franciscan monks. All of the Timucua Indians at the mission are killed in the fighting.
1769: Gaspar de Portolá has led an expedition to explore parts of the central California coastline. While near San Jose Creek, a group of local Indians provides them with some food.
1836: The United States signs a treaty (7 stat. 527) with the Wahpaakootah, Susseton, and Upper Medawakanton tribes of Sioux Indians.
1666: Mohawk Chief Agariata is attending a peace conference in Quebec between the Iroquois and the French. Governor Alexandre de Proville asks, during a dinner, if anyone knew who killed his son a few months ago. Agariata brags that he did it. The governor becomes so angry, he has Agariata seized, and hung. This ends the peace process. Governor de Proville leads French troops against the Mohawks, himself.
1715: After a history of occasional skirmishes, at the urging of Europeans living in Pennsylvania, the Conestogas and the Catawba tribes agree to sign a peace treaty. They agree to stop fighting among themselves.